Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a normal inhabitant of the intestines and is necessary for nutrition and intestinal health. It is the most common facultative anaerobic bacterium in the faeces of warm-blooded animals and humans.
While disease caused by this organism is uncommon, the clinical consequences are often
serious. Two forms of disease are now recognised; a serious invasive disease and a non-invasive gastroenteritis. It grows at refrigeration temperatures in the presence or absence of air.
The bacterial pathogen Salmonella, the illness it causes, and ways to control it.
This organism causes the most commonly reported gastrointestinal disease in New Zealand. The two species Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are most often associated with disease. It grows best in reduced oxygen atmospheres and only at temperatures
exceeding room temperature.
These organisms form a diverse group of Escherichia coli that are capable of producing shigatoxin(s).
These data sheets contain a summary of information available in the literature.
Scombroid poisoning occurs when raw scombroid fish is temperature abused allowing bacterial growth to occur with concomitant toxin production. Similar toxins can also be produced in other foods, notably cheese and other fermented foods. While histamine poisoning is well known and is by far the most important form, a range of different related toxins, known as biogenic amines, can cause disease. However, the actual nature of the toxin(s) is controversial.
A report to determine what scientific evidence was available to support sous vide cooking of meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that occasionally causes serious illness in immunocompromised individuals and unborn babies. It is estimated that one third of all humans have been exposed to T. gondii, but most instances of toxoplasmosis are mild or asymptomatic.
Growth and toxin production is best in the presence of oxygen but can grow anaerobically. It is not regarded as a good competitor with other bacteria. Infected food handlers are a significant cause of food poisonings.
This genus includes four species; S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei, which are able to cause bacillary dysentery. They are very similar to Escherichia coli and are serologically cross reactive, but have remained separate species for clinical reasons.
In New Zealand, cases of human illness and laboratory detection of either organism are notified to ESR and Y. enterocolitica is more commonly reported than Y. pseudotuberculosis. A seasonal pattern is apparent from the data, with more cases reported in the months of October, November and January (Pirie, 2008). A large proportion of cases are believed to be attributable to food. This datasheet focuses on Y. enterocolitica.
An infrequent cause of disease in New Zealand, but has a high associated case fatality rate. It is a marine organism (grows in 6% NaCl) that can grow both in the presence and absence of air.
A marine Vibrio normally associated with food poisonings involving seafood consumption. It is a major cause of food poisoning in Asian countries. Certain strains (Kanagawa phenomenon-positive, KP+) are primarily involved with human disease.