Sources of foodborne illness
Attributing foodborne illnesses to a source is important for implementing controls to minimise illness and control outbreaks.
The projects that make up the Human Health Surveillance science programme provide knowledge about the sources of most foodborne illnesses and how often they can be attributed to foods, the environment, direct animal contact, or human-to-human exchange.
keywords: Foodborne attribution, Campylobacteriosis, Yersiniosis, STEC infection
Expert opinion was sought on potentially foodborne transmission of Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp. and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which are the microbiological hazards of main concern in New Zealand. The primary goal was to gain refreshed estimates for attribution factors that could be applied to human health data to monitor trends over time. Campylobacteriosis and yersiniosis were assigned a foodborne attribution of 75%. STEC was assigned attribution rates of 20-40%.
This report proportionally attributes human cases of campylobacteriosis to reservoir sources in the Manawatu over the period January to December 2016. Modelling attributed 48–70% of the human cases to poultry and 25-47% to ruminants. These proportions refer only to the animal reservoirs associated with strains and do not examine the pathway of exposure to Campylobacter, e.g. direct animal contact, meat from the reservoir animal, other foods, drinking or recreational, water, etc.
Results of multilocus sequence typing and source attribution modelling of campylobacterisolates in the Manawatu culture bank 2009–10.
Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis in a sentinel area (Manawatu).
An examination of the suitability of various source attribtion models, taking account of temporal variation, of campylobacteriosis.
A report to determine what scientific evidence was available to support sous vide cooking of meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs.
Attribution of campylobacteriosis from fresh retail poultry – the transmission cycles within and between end-of-lay hens, ducks, and turkeys.
This report provides an update of the relative contribution of different reservoirs to the burden of human campylobacteriosis in the Manawatu sentinel site. It summarises the results of multilocus sequence typing of isolates stored in the culture bank of Campylobacter jejuni samples from poultry and humans in the Manawatu sentinel site, and the epidemiological data linked to the human cases.
Salmonella subtypes from human and animal specimens used to estimate the importance of animal reservoirs as origins for bacteria.
A report summarising transmission routes for campylobacteriosis in New Zealand (food and environmental).
Applying an epidemiological approach to human salmonellosis source attribution.
The goal of this project was to trial and evaluate the use of the Bayesian heirarchical model (epiclustR) using weekly New Zealand campylobacteriosis notification data in real time.
This report provides a summary on how epidemiological methods are used for detecting and investigating foodborne disease outbreaks. It explains descriptive, analytical and laboratory methods, describes criteria for identifying suspected food items.
Expert elicitation-derived estimates of foodborne proportions of enteric illnesses
This report proportionally attributes human cases of campylobacteriosis to reservoir sources in the Manawatu over the period January to December 2015. Modelling attributed ~50% (45–70%) of the human cases to poultry and 37% (25–50%) to ruminants, predominantly cattle. Urban cases are more associated with poultry strains and rural with ruminant. These proportions refer only to the animal reservoirs associated with strains and do not examine the pathway of exposure to Campylobacter, e.g. direct animal contact, meat from the reservoir animal, other foods, drinking or recreational, water, etc. While the predominant poultry strain (accounting for 31% of isolates) was the antimicrobial-resistant sequence type ST-6964, it was detected from only four human cases and still does not appear to present additional risks to public health.