Food for people with low immunity
If you have low immunity, you may be more at risk of getting sick from food poisoning than other people. Find out which foods to avoid to help protect yourself from illness, and make sure the food you eat is safe for you.
What is low immunity?
Your immune system fights harmful bugs that can make you sick. Having low immunity means your immune system is not as strong as it should be. So you have to be more careful what you eat.
Low immunity can be caused by:
- having an illness like cancer or HIV/AIDS
- having an autoimmune disease such as inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, or multiple sclerosis
- taking certain medications, including immunosuppressive drugs
- being an older person with an ongoing (chronic) illness
- being pregnant.
If you are unsure if you have low immunity or have questions, ask your doctor or other healthcare professional.
If you have low immunity, know what is safe to eat
Our food safety guide for people with low immunity includes information on safe and risky foods. It gives advice on buying, preparing, and storing foods.
Guide to food safety when you have low immunity [PDF, 2.7 MB]
Remember, talk to your doctor or dietitian if you have an illness or medical condition that requires food restrictions. Follow the advice they give you.
Our pullout guide has a full list of foods that are safe and tells you how to prepare at-risk foods.
Pullout guide to food safety with low immunity [PDF, 719 KB]
If you are pregnant or looking after a young child, we have specific advice to help keep you or your baby safe.
How to avoid food poisoning
Food may sometimes be contaminated by toxins or bugs like bacteria, parasites, or viruses. If food is handled incorrectly, you may get sick.
Food poisoning symptoms include stomach pains, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea.
You can minimise your risk of catching a foodborne illness by:
- knowing which foods are high risk, and avoiding them
- selecting safer foods
- following food safety guidelines when preparing and storing food.
Foods that may pose a risk
Some types of foods may pose a greater risk than others. They need to be carefully prepared or avoided.
Most dairy products in New Zealand are pasteurised. Pasteurisation is a heat treatment that kills bugs in raw products. But these products can still become contaminated once opened.
Dairy foods that should be avoided when you have low immunity include:
- raw/unpasteurised products
- soft cheeses (unless cooked or eaten right after opening after being stored in the fridge)
- commercially prepared and unpackaged smoothies or shakes
- soft-serve ice cream.
Find out more
Vegetables, salads, and fruits
Wash and dry fresh fruits and vegetables before you eat them. Especially if you are eating them raw.
Fruits and vegetables that are difficult to clean thoroughly, such as sprouts and some herbs, should be avoided.
Meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs
If you have low immunity, you should not eat:
- raw or undercooked meat, including poultry, fish or shellfish
- raw eggs or foods containing raw eggs (such as home-made mayonnaise, hollandaise sauce, Caesar dressing, some desserts)
- cold meats, pâté, or cold-smoked fish.
Meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs should only be eaten if cooked until piping hot (over 70°C).
Non-commercial foods include meat from animals that you might hunt and kill yourself. They are sometimes called "wild foods" (food you hunt, gather, and catch). Or it might be an animal killed and prepared for eating on a farm or private property.
These types of foods are not prepared with the same safety rules that apply to commercial foods.
Make sure these foods come from a safe environment and were handled correctly before eating them.
Food from restaurants and takeaways
When you eat out or buy takeaways, avoid the same high-risk foods we've already mentioned. To minimise risk, choose restaurant and takeaway food that is:
- well-cooked and prepared just before it's served to you
- served piping hot.
You should also avoid:
- food from buffets, smorgasbords, salad bars, or street vendors
- house-made sauces and dressings that contain raw eggs
- pre-prepared cold foods such as salads, unrefrigerated sandwiches, or sushi.
Food you eat overseas
If you're travelling overseas, take extra care. Some countries have very high rates of food poisoning. Water supplies may also be unsafe.
Remember that even adding ice to your drink could be risky.
Buy, handle, and store foods safely
Besides choosing safer foods, if you have low immunity you need to make sure you buy, store, and prepare foods safely to avoid getting sick.
Who to contact
If you have questions about food for people with low immunity, email firstname.lastname@example.org