Forestry production and trade statistics detail the production, trade, and other forestry activities in New Zealand.
What forestry means to New Zealand
While New Zealand is a small player in the international forestry industry, (1.1% of the world's total supply of industrial wood and 1.3% of the world's trade in forest products), forestry is a significant industry in New Zealand. It contributes an annual gross income of around $5 billion, 3% of New Zealand's GDP, and directly employs around 20,000 people. Wood products are New Zealand's third largest export earner – behind dairy and meat.
The industry is based around sustainably managed exotic plantation forests, covering 1.751 million hectares – about 7% – of New Zealand's land area. Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) makes up 90% of the exotic plantation area, with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) accounting for 6%, and the rest made up of eucalyptus and other species.
The sector is entering an exciting new phase, as forests planted in recent decades reach maturity, increasing production volumes. Forests are also at the centre of New Zealand's climate change response efforts, and there is also increasing realisation of the environmental and social benefits delivered by forests.
Log and roundwood removal statistics
Roundwood removals are an indicator of export and domestic processing levels.
- Roundwood removals, year ended 31 March, 1951 to most recent [XLS, 61 KB]
- Roundwood removals by wood supply region, 2002 to most recent [XLS, 39 KB]
- Estimated processing of roundwood by wood supply region, 2002 to most recent [XLS, 40 KB]
- Production, imports, exports, and consumption of roundwood, 1996 to most recent [XLS, 42 KB]
- Share of total roundwood removals by wood supply regions, 2002 to 2008 [XLS, 31 KB]
Production and trade data of veneer, plywood, particleboard, and fibreboard.
- Production of veneer, plywood, laminated veneer, lumber, particleboard, and fibreboard, 1951 to most recent [XLS, 35 KB]
- Production, trade, and consumption of fibreboard, 1989 to most recent [XLS, 30 KB]
- Production, trade, and consumption of particleboard, 1989 to most recent [XLS, 31 KB]
- Production, trade, and consumption of plywood, 1989 to most recent [XLS, 31 KB]
Pulp, paper, and paperboard statistics
Production and trade data of pulp, paper, and paperboard.
- Production, imports, exports, and consumption of wood pulp in New Zealand, 1989–2012 [XLS, 30 KB]
- Production of paper and paperboard, 1951 to most recent [XLS, 32 KB]
- Estimated paper consumption, 1989 to most recent [XLS, 30 KB]
- Production of pulp, 1951 to most recent [XLS, 34 KB]
Production and trade data for sawn timber including by species and region.
- Production of sawn timber, 1970 to most recent [XLS, 49 KB]
- Production of sawn timber by species, 2000 to most recent [XLS, 69 KB]
- Sawn timber production by species and wood supply region, 2006 to most recent [XLS, 89 KB]
- Production of sawn timber by mill size group, 2000 to most recent [XLS, 66 KB]
- Production, imports, exports, and consumption of sawn timber, 1989 to most recent [XLS, 43 KB]
- Sawmill conversion factors, 1990 to most recent [XLS, 26 KB]
- Exotic sawn timber by species [XLSX, 12 KB]
- Indigenous sawn timber by species [XLSX, 9.4 KB]
The National Exotic Forest Region Yield tables give the forest industry the underlying data used to produce wood availability forecasts. New Zealand's major forest owners and managers provided information to construct the yield tables which are part of the National Exotic Forest Description (NEFD) database.
The yield tables are a tabular representation of forest yield in cubic meters per hectare (m3/ha). The yield table is expressed in terms of total standing volume (TSV), total recoverable volume (TRV), and volumes of 3 generic log types, together with any production thinning volumes by age (1 to 40 years). There is a separate yield table for each crop type.
Log types specifications
The radiata pine has 4 tending regimes:
|Radiata pine tending regime||R|
|Pruned without production thinning||I|
|Unpruned without production thinning||M|
|Pruned with production thinning||T|
|Unpruned with production thinning||Z|
The Douglas-fir forest has 2 tending regimes:
|Douglas-fir tending regime||D|
|Without production thinning||M|
|With production thinning||Z|
For each crop type and regime, contributors were asked to provide separate yield tables based on when the stand was planted:
|Age of stands|
|Stands planted pre-1990||O|
|Stands planted post-1989||Y|
|Stands of all ages||A|
The Otago region has an additional 'year of planting' split:
|Otago radiata pine|
|Stands planted pre-1982||X|
|Stands planted between 1982 and 1989||O|
|Stands planted post-1989||Y|
|Stands of all ages||A|
|Small end diameter|
|Log length (m)|
|*Sweep class||< 3.7||3.7 to 4.8||4.9 to 7.6||7.6 +|
TRV – stands for total recoverable volume – this is the volume of timber recovered during harvest. The TRV does not include bark.
TSV – stands for total standing volume – this is the total standing volume of timber contained in all live crop stems. The TSV includes some non-recoverable volume, like stumps and the non-merchantable tops of stems, but excludes bark.
Crop type – defined as an aggregate of forest stands of the same species and tending regime within the same wood supply region for the NEFD.
Pruned – refers to pruning carried out before age 12 so that more than 50% of stems in the planned final crop stocking will contain a pruned butt log of at least 4 meters in length.
Species group – New yield tables have been produced for:
- radiata pine (Pinus radiata)
- Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)
Stand – the area of standing trees or forest usually of 1 species, age, and tending regime.
Production thinning – the extraction of thinnings for commercial use. Stands that have been production thinned produce a smaller clear-felled volume than stands that have not been production thinned.
CAI – stands for current annual increment, which represents the rate at which an area of forest is growing. In this report CAI is expressed as m3/ha/year and is the difference in TRV between 2 successive ages. In the year following a production thinning the CAI is not reported because thinning decreases the TRV, so the CAI does not reflect the growth of the remaining standing trees over that year.
Yield tables have been produced for the following NEFD wood supply regions (WSR):
- Northland [XLS, 110 KB]
- Auckland [XLS, 92 KB]
- Central North Island [XLS, 220 KB]
- East Coast [XLS, 89 KB]
- Hawke's Bay [XLS, 91 KB]
- Southern North Island East Coast [XLS, 94 KB]
- Southern North Island West Coast [XLS, 89 KB]
- Marlborough [XLS, 123 KB]
- West Coast
- Nelson [XLS, 123 KB]
- Canterbury [XLS, 95 KB]
- Otago [XLS, 165 KB]
- Southland [XLS, 149 KB]
- New Zealand's net stocked planted production forests covered an estimated 1.72 million hectares as at 1 April 2015.
- The total planted forest standing volume is estimated to be 502 million cubic metres with an average forest standing age (area weighted) of 17.1 years.
- As at 1 April 2015, New Zealand's net stocked forest area has decreased by 16,000 hectares from 1 April 2014.
- Harvested areas awaiting either replanting or a land use decision increased by 9,300 hectares in the year to 1 April 2015.
This report contains the final results from the National Exotic Forest Description (NEFD) 2015 survey. The 2015 survey covered all known forest owners and managers with at least 1,000 hectares of planted production forest. For the 2015 NEFD survey, about 100 questionnaires were mailed out. An area weighted response rate of 98.5% was achieved.
Download the 2015 NEFD Report [PDF, 11 MB]
Final tables as published in 2015 NEFD
The full list of tables is in the contents section of the report. You can download the following XLS versions of the tables:
Annual forestry export statistics covering the volume and value of logs and wood chips, sawn timber and sleepers, wood pulp, paper and paperboard, panel products, and other forestry products exported from New Zealand.
Exports by forestry product
- Year ended 30 June 1981 to most recent [XLS, 87 KB]
- Year ended 31 December 1980 to most recent [XLS, 88 KB]
Exports by forestry product and country of destination
- Year ended 30 June 1996 to most recent [XLS, 313 KB]
- Year ended 31 December 1996 to most recent [XLS, 384 KB]
Annual forestry imports statistics covering the volume and value of timber, wood pulp, paper and paperboard, panel products, and other forestry products imported into New Zealand.
Imports by forestry product
- Year ended 30 June 1981 to most recent [XLS, 84 KB]
- Year ended 31 December 1980 to most recent [XLS, 83 KB]
Imports by forestry product and country of origin
- Year ended 30 June 1996 to most recent [XLS, 315 KB]
- Year ended 31 December 1996 to most recent [XLS, 351 KB]
Wood Availability Forecasts 2014-2050
- Canterbury wood availability forecast 2015 [PDF, 1.9 MB]
- West Coast wood availability forecast 2015 [PDF, 593 KB]
- Western & Eastern Southern North Island 2014 [PDF, 3.3 MB]
- Nelson & Marlborough wood availability forecast 2014 [PDF, 2.5 MB]
- Central North Island wood availability forecast 2014 [PDF, 1.4 MB]
- East Coast wood availability forecast 2014 [PDF, 1.7 MB]
- Hawke's Bay wood availability forecast 2014 [PDF, 2.5 MB]
- Northland wood availability forecast 2014 [PDF, 1.5 MB]
- Otago/Southland wood availability forecast 2014 [PDF, 2.4 MB]
Wood Availability Forecasts 2009-2040
- New Zealand wood availability forecasts 2010–2040 [PDF, 797 KB]
- Central North Island forest industry and wood availability forecasts 2009 [PDF, 1.1 MB]
- Southern North Island forest industry and wood availability forecasts 2009 [PDF, 938 KB]
- Auckland forest industry and wood availability forecasts 2009 [PDF, 484 KB]
- Northland forest industry and wood availability forecasts 2009 [PDF, 5.4 MB]
- East Coast forest industry and wood availability forecasts 2008 [PDF, 797 KB]
- Hawke's Bay forest industry and wood availability forecasts 2008 [PDF, 851 KB]
- Otago/Southland forest industry and wood availability forecasts 2008 [PDF, 1.5 MB]
Forested lands by wood supply regions
These maps show the location of forests and wood processors in the 9 wood supply regions of New Zealand. Other GIS layers have been included for reference.
Please click on the region of the map or the link at the bottom of the page for the Wood Supply Regions you are interested in to view a PDF map.
To maximise the view of the wood supply region, the North of some maps had been reoriented.
Downloading and printing of all maps is the responsibility of the user. While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in these maps, MPI accepts no responsibility or liability for any errors or omissions. All maps are for personal use only and are not to be used for commercial purposes.
- Northland [PDF, 2.6 MB]
- Central North Island [PDF, 3.4 MB]
- East Coast [PDF, 2.4 MB]
- Hawke's Bay [PDF, 2.4 MB]
- South North Island [PDF, 3 MB]
- Nelson/Marlborough [PDF, 3 MB]
- West Coast [PDF, 2.2 MB]
- Canterbury [PDF, 2.6 MB]
- Otago/Southland [PDF, 2.7 MB]
Forest ownership map: 2008
The forest ownership map series shows exotic forests greater than 50 hectares in extent. Other smaller forest blocks shown are sourced from the Land Cover Database II. Forest ownership is shown for those owners/managers who were willing and able to provide spatial information on their forests therefore some forest has not been identified. Forest boundaries represent net stocked area, forest boundary, or legal boundary.
How the survey is compiled
These log prices are historical and indicative only and may not correspond to actual prices paid, or grades used, in market transactions. A 'best fit' is applied by survey respondents to align company log grade specification with the generic specifications. Direct comparisons with actual market prices may not apply due to differences between the specification sets. The prices are subject to change when further data become available. The sources for this information are MPI's industry contacts.
2nd quarter and 3 year average as at June 2016
|Generic log type and pricing point||June quarter|
|3 year |
Export (NZ$ per JAS m3 FOB)
|Pruned||204 – 236||190|
|Unpruned A Grade||146 – 169||136|
|Unpruned K Grade||135 – 162||129|
|Pulp||120 – 143||113|
Domestic (NZ$ per tonne delivered at mill)
|P1||142 – 195||150|
|P2||134 – 188||131|
|S1||104 – 123||107|
|S2||90 – 118||102|
|L1 and L2||71 – 132||95|
|S3 and L3||82 – 119||91|
|Pulp||44 – 59||48|
r = revised – n/a = not available – JAS = Japanese agriculture standard – FOB = free on board
The log price collection process
MPI collects log prices to analyse trends rather than for marketing purposes, so it does not collect spot prices, day-to-day prices, or one-off sale prices. All data published are historical, usually on a monthly or quarterly basis.
MPI uses 3 sources for radiata pine log prices:
- surveys of a selection of major New Zealand log suppliers for indicative domestic and export log prices. These are published quarterly on MPI's website.
- the Japan lumber report for A and J grade export prices
- an Overseas Trade Price Index for Exports of Logs, Poles and Sawn Timber based on exporter declarations, published quarterly on MPI's website.
Export log grades are typically measured in Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) cubic metres. JAS measures logs according to prescribed formulas. Domestic logs are typically measured in cubic metres or tonnes. Conversion factors between all 3 measurements vary owing to a number of variables including wood age, log size, and taper, but are mostly within 90% of a 1:1 relationship. Conversion factors are assumed to be 1:1 on this website.
Log prices can be quoted at a number of different pricing points, like 'cost insurance freight' (or CIF, ie, landed at an importing port), 'free on board' (or FOB, ie, loaded onto a ship at an export port), wharf gate, on truck, and at stump. Export margins charged by New Zealand's log buyers can range from 4% to 15% of a landed price at wharf.
Log prices can vary depending on exchange rates, log measurement methods, and log grade specifications. Log grades have also changed over time. Some industry commentators say log size has decreased within grades (both in small end diameter and length) but log quality is perceived to be increasing (particularly clearwood depth in pruned logs). Keep these factors in mind when comparing these log prices. Prices should be based on a common pricing point.
Log grade and prices
A number of log grades have been selected to represent the overall log market. For the export market these are pruned (to Japan and Korea), A (Japan), J (Japan), K (Korea), and pulp grades. For the domestic market these are pruned (P1, P2), unpruned (S1, S2, L1 and L2, S3 and L3), pulp (as defined by Scion Research), and run-of-bush (a mixture of grades, generally unpruned).
Log grade specifications can vary significantly between suppliers, even within a particular grade. For example, K-grade log specifications may vary in length, small end diameter and allowable knot size. This is even truer of domestic grades, where the Scion Research log grades used by MPI have not been universally adopted by the industry.
To help overcome the situation, MPI relies on industry sources to provide log prices to the nearest log grade equivalent and to identify any significant changes to log specifications.
Prices in the Japanese market are generally set quarterly, Korean prices are commonly set shipment by shipment, and other export markets vary. There is no standard time frame for reviewing domestic prices, which tend to fluctuate depending on sale agreements. MPI only records average log prices from its industry contacts on a quarterly basis.
Export prices are usually provided by industry sources in United States dollars, which MPI converts to New Zealand dollars using a quarterly exchange rate. MPI uses FOB as the pricing point for export prices, while the domestic pricing point is 'landed' or 'delivered' at mill. This means MPI has to make some assumptions about costs if the log prices provided by the industry are to another pricing point. All data are destroyed once they have been aggregated and averaged, to retain confidentiality.
Where possible, the quarterly figures encompass a range of log prices for each grade, rather than a single figure. This reflects the range of prices associated with each grade and helps preserve the anonymity of individual company data. MPI uses a mid-range price to analyse these data. While a volume-weighted average price based on each company's production would give a better measurement of actual prices, volume data are not readily available.
MPI's quarterly log prices now feature the 12-quarter median price series. These prices are derived using the median prices of each log grade, averaged over the last 12 quarters. This price series tends to buffer the effects of any extreme spikes of troughs, which can occur from time to time and tend to distort trends in the short term.
Availability of log price information
MPI's log price information is available from a number of sources. Radiata pine log prices are published quarterly on MPI's website. These data are also available on Scion Research's Woodwide database. A and J grade prices are available free from MPI and the Overseas Trade Price Index is available through MPI's Statistical Releases by quarterly subscription.
MPI acknowledges the assistance of the forestry and sawmilling companies in preparing and supplying radiata pine log prices.
The quarterly trade data is now being published in a new format. Data is presented on a time series basis, simplifying the information we currently provide. There is also a separate raw data CSV file to help with further analysis. If you have any questions email firstname.lastname@example.org.
How the information is collected
MPI surveys wood processors from around New Zealand, both quarterly and annually, for their production information. Each survey represents about 200 timber, panel, and pulp mills throughout New Zealand. This production information is then compiled with export data sourced from Statistics New Zealand. Combining these two data sets allows MPI to calculate an estimate for the roundwood removed from New Zealand forests each quarter. This estimate for roundwood removals is then released quarterly, along with production and trade information.
- March 2016 quarter production [XLS, 273 KB]
- March 2016 quarter stocks [XLS, 79 KB]
Deforestation surveys collect information on the extent of forest owners' intentions to deforest or take up the offsetting provision in the emissions trading scheme (ETS). This is crucial information for domestic and international climate change policy and ETS financial forecasting.
- Deforestation Intentions Survey 2015 [PDF, 269 KB]
- Deforestation Survey 2014 [PDF, 476 KB]
- Deforestation Survey 2013 [PDF, 246 KB]
- Deforestation Survey 2012 [PDF, 153 KB]
- Deforestation Survey 2011 [PDF, 574 KB]
- Deforestation Survey 2010 [PDF, 111 KB]
- Deforestation Survey 2009 [PDF, 172 KB]
- Deforestation Survey 2008 [PDF, 161 KB]
- Deforestation Survey 2007 [PDF, 91 KB]
- Deforestation Survey 2006 [PDF, 79 KB]
Find out more
Many statistics are also available in CSV format, email email@example.com for copies or for other questions on the published statistics.