Import risk analysis
Risk analysis is the first stage in developing import health standards. Find out more about the import risk analysis process.
Risk analysis is a critical step
The main aim of an import risk analysis is to assess the biosecurity risks associated with importing goods or animals into New Zealand. An analysis must be:
- defensible – with conclusions based on facts that can be justified.
Biosecurity risks are usually pests and diseases we don’t want to get established in New Zealand because of the harm they might cause to our environment, agricultural production, or human health.
New Zealand is one of the leaders
New Zealand is among several countries leading the way in establishing import risk analysis procedures internationally.
Download amendments to the procedures [PDF, 24 KB]
Who to contact
If you have questions about import risk analysis or import health standards, email email@example.com.
Published risk analyses and submission reviews
You can download a copy of a published import risk analysis. Each risk analysis has a related document, which is a review of the submissions received.
Extra details about each document can be read by clicking on the '+' sign that appears on the same line as the document title.
Finding documents using the filter
The documents are filed in 14 categories, including live animals, plants and food. The categories will appear in the filter box when you select 'Show all subjects'. Choose from the list of categories displayed – or choose from the list of countries or topics (sub-categories). Alternatively:
- type in a keyword or part of a title in "Filter by title and/or summary"
- choose a date range.
‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) was identified by rapid risk assessment through the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) emerging risk system as an organism that may require risk management on the imported carrot seed pathway (PP 14-130). This formal risk assessment has been prepared to support risk management decisions for the pathway.
• Estimates the level of efficacy required for a treatment for BMSB on any given pathway based on the propagule pressure from BMSB and the likely volume of imports;
• Describes the level of efficacy provided by published or reported treatment research;
• Provides information to enable lab-determined treatment schedules to be converted into operational schedules;
• Provides background/references on the effect of the treatments on other pests to illustrate relativity to BMSB.
Investigates the risks of importing unwanted species of ants with commercial consignments of sawn timber exported to New Zealand from the south Pacific region (excluding Australia), the likelihood of those imported ants establishing in New Zealand, the effectiveness of the biosecurity measures and border clearance systems currently in place and mitigating those risks, and any additional biosecurity measures that may be required to reduce the biosecurity risk to an acceptable level.
An analysis of the viruses, viroids, phytoplasma, bacteria and diseases of unknown aetiology on Malus nursery stock from all countries.
This document is an analysis of the risk posed by exotic strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (the causative agent of Newcastle disease) in imported hatching eggs of hens (Gallus gallus). Although non-pathogenic strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 are present in New Zealand, there has never been an outbreak of Newcastle disease in this country.
This analysis concludes that there is a low risk that exotic strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 could be introduced in hen's hatching eggs. The spread of introduced strains is considered possible by a variety of exposure pathways, although the risks of airborne spread have been greatly exaggerated over the past 30 years. The introduction of highly virulent strains of the virus would almost certainly result in serious mortality in commercial and hobby poultry flocks. Furthermore, exposure of wild birds could lead to the virus being introduced into endangered native bird populations, with potentially devastating effects. While the introduction of field strains of low virulence might not cause severe disease in New Zealand bird populations, some strains may have significant effects on avian health and production, and since low virulence field strains may not be as stable as was thought in the past, there is a possibility that such strains could mutate to become virulent after introduction into chicken flocks.
Recommendations for importations of hatching eggs were made and for the review of the current avian quarantine facility standard, which includes safeguards for airborne spread.
This document is a qualitative analysis of the biosecurity risks posed by Babesia gibsoni in dogs (Canis familiaris) and their semen imported into New Zealand.
B. gibsoni is a tick-transmitted blood borne parasite of wild and domestic dogs. The tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, which is known to be capable of transmitting the disease, is found in New Zealand. The disease is characterised by lethargy, fever and haemolytic anaemia. Treatment is not effective in eliminating the parasite, and recovered dogs commonly become chronic carriers, thereby posing a source of infection for other dogs and ticks.
There is no evidence that semen poses a risk of introduction of B. gibsoni. Safeguards are recommended to manage the risk of introduction of B. gibsoni in imported dogs.
This analysis examines the risks posed by infectious or parasitic agents when importing budgerigars from the United Kingdom.
Seventy nine organisms/diseases of concern of budgerigars are considered. Of these, 19 are identified as preliminary hazards and are subject to a risk assessment. As a result of this, a non-negligible risk is identified with avian paramyxovirus 1 (low pathogenicity), avian influenza (low pathogenicity), Pachecho’s disease virus (herpesvirus), psittacine pox virus, psittacine reovirus, exotic Salmonella spp., protozoal blood parasites (haematozoa), external parasites, and internal parasites.
Options are presented for effective management of risk, including isolation in quarantine for suitable periods, testing for disease agents or for antibodies to the agents, and treatment for internal and external parasites.
This import risk analysis is concerned with effectively managing the disease risks associated with the importation of camel meat for human consumption from Australia. In this context, risk is defined as the likelihood of a disease entering, establishing or spreading in New Zealand and its likely impact on animal or human health, the environment and the economy.
The meat would be derived from central Australian feral camels slaughtered and processed in domestic licensed abattoirs.
This risk analysis examines the risks involved with the importation of domestic cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis familiaris), and canine semen from all countries.
This document examines each of the agents of concern by applying MPI’s standard risk analysis process. This begins with the hazard identification step, where the epidemiology of the disease including distribution, clinical signs, transmission, diagnosis and any available treatment is considered. As a result, each organism is identified as a hazard or not in the commodities.
Organisms identified as hazards are subjected to individual risk assessments, which assess the likelihood of entry, exposure and the likely resulting adverse consequences. For organisms that are assessed to be risks in the commodities, the risk management step considers options that could be used to effectively manage the risk.
The risk analysis concludes that the following agents pose non-negligible risks in imported cats, dogs and canine semen, and that sanitary measures can be justified for them: canine brucellosis, leptospirosis, plague, salmonellosis, babesiosis, Q fever, filariosis, leishmaniosis, Surra, canine transmissible venereal tumour, ectoparasitic infestations (fleas, leeches, lice, mites, ticks and fly larvae infestation), endoparasites (cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans and trematodes) and rabies.
- Cattle from Australia, Canada, the European Union and the United States of America - Draft import risk analysis (June 2008) [PDF, 769 KB]
- Cattle germplasm from all countries and cattle from Australia, Canada, the European Union, and the United States of America - Import risk analysis review of submissions (February 2009) [PDF, 299 KB]
The risks associated with the importation of cattle from Australia, Canada, the European Union (27 countries), and the United States of America have been examined. Only risks associated with the importation of infectious organisms or parasites have been considered.
Of an initial list of 93 microorganisms or groups of organisms, 43 disease agents or groups of disease agents/diseases that are exotic to New Zealand or are the subject of a national eradication campaign in New Zealand, were included in a preliminary hazard list. Thirty four of these were identified to be hazards and were subjected to a risk assessment. A non-negligible risk was identified with the following: Borna disease virus, exotic bovine herpes viruses, bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, bovine ephemeral fever virus, foot and mouth disease virus, rabies virus, tick borne encephalitis viruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent, Bacillus anthracis, exotic Brucella spp., Mycobacterium bovis, exotic Mycoplasma spp., Pasteurella multocida types B and E, exotic Salmonella spp., exotic Leptospira spp., Anaplasma spp., Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Babesia spp., Theileria annulata, exotic lice, mites and ticks, Hypoderma spp., exotic internal parasites, and exotic weed seeds.
Options for risk management measures in order to effectively manage the risk associated with each of these have been presented.
This risk analysis covers the import of frozen bovine semen and in vivo derived bovine embryos from all countries.
An initial list of 86 disease agents was compiled. The list did not include arthropod and nematode parasites as these cannot be carried by semen or embryos. Further consideration of these resulted in a preliminary hazard list of 37 disease agents or groups of disease agents, which were subjected to risk analysis. In some cases risk analysis was done on a group of agents rather than a single agent e.g. Simbu group viruses, Salmonella spp., mollicutes of cattle etc.
28 of these preliminary hazards were identified to be hazards and were subjected to a risk assessment. 12 hazards were assessed to be associated with a negligible risk and, in these cases, no risk management measures are required.
A non-negligible risk was identified with the following: Borna disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, foot and mouth disease virus, exotic bovine herpes viruses, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, exotic Brucella spp., Mycobacterium bovis, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, other exotic Mycoplasma spp., exotic Salmonella spp., exotic Leptospira spp., Chlamydophila abortus, and Coxiella burnetii. Options for risk management measures in order to effectively manage the risk associated with each of these have been presented.
- Chicken meat and chicken meat products; Bernard Matthews Foods Limited turkey meat preparations from the United Kingdom - Import risk analysis review of submissions (September 1999) [PDF, 106 KB]
- Chicken meat and chicken meat products; Bernard Matthews Foods Limited turkey meat preparations from the United Kingdom - Import risk analysis review of submissions on revised quantitative risk assessments on chicken meat from the US; reassessment of the heat treatment for inactivation of Newcastle disease virus in chicken meat (November 2000) [PDF, 336 KB]
- Cooked duck meat from Australia - Import risk analysis review of submissions (May 2007) [PDF, 1285 KB]
- Chicken Meat and Chicken Meat Products; Bernard Matthews Foods Limited Turkey Meat Preparations from the United Kingdom - Risk Analysis (March 1999) [PDF, 782 KB]
- Chicken meat and chicken meat products; Bernard Matthews Foods Limited turkey meat preparations from the United Kingdom - Import risk analysis revised quantitative risk assessments on chicken meat from the US; reassessment of the heat treatment for inactivation of Newcastle disease virus in chicken meat (April 2000) [PDF, 495 KB]
- Cooked duck meat from Australia - Import risk analysis (September 2006) [PDF, 306 KB]
The biosecurity risks associated with the importation of chilled or frozen meat and meat products derived from chickens (Gallus gallus) or ducks (Pekin ducks, Anas platyrhynchos domestica or Anas peking, muscovy ducks Cairina moschata, or a hybrid of these known as mulard or moulard ducks) have been examined.
From an initial list of 116 organisms/groups of organisms possibly associated with chickens and ducks, a preliminary hazard list identified 47 organisms/groups of organisms that required further consideration. Of these preliminary hazards, 14 were identified as hazards in imported whole chicken carcases, 6 in imports limited to chicken meat, 16 in imported whole duck carcases and 10 of these were identified as hazards in imports limited to duck meat.
Following a risk assessment for each of these hazards, options to manage the risk associated with the following hazards in chicken meat have been presented: Newcastle disease virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Salmonella arizonae. For imported whole chicken carcases, risk management measures have also been presented for avian paramyxovirus-2 and exotic strains of infectious bronchitis virus.
Options to manage the risk associated with the following hazards in duck meat have been presented: Newcastle disease virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, duck hepatitis virus, derzsy’s disease virus (muscovy ducks and their hybrids only) and Salmonella arizonae. For imported whole duck carcases, risk management measures have also been presented for avian paramyxovirus-2 and duck virus enteritis virus.
A review is being carried out of the Import Health Standards 155.02.06: Importation of Nursery Stock, specific Citrus schedule, which is out of date. As inputs to this review, pest risk assessments are required for eight organisms that have been identified as pests of Citrus but do not currently have a requirement for specific tests. These pest risk assessments examine the risks posed by eight micro-organisms (viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and bacteria) associated with the importation of Citrus nursery stock from all countries. All eight species are found to be non-negligible risks associated with Citrus nursery stock.
This risk analysis considers the biosecurity risks associated with the importation of live animals and hatching eggs of species within the Order Crocodilia (Class Reptilia) from Australia. The commodity definitions used were: animals of species in the Order Crocodilia (Class Reptilia) which have been hatched and reared in captivity in Australia and which are clinically healthy and free from visible soil contamination; and eggs of Crocodilia laid in captivity in Australia. Eggs must be clean on visual inspection. From a preliminary hazard list, those organisms identified as hazards in the commodity were subjected to individual risk assessments.
As a result of the individual risk assessments, it was concluded that the risk in live Crocodilia was non-negligible for only one organism; Edwardsiella tarda. It is recommended that Crocodilia are required to have been reared in an environment with good quality water from a supply not inhabited by fish and have not been fed on fish or been exposed to live fish, or samples from both gular and paracloacal glands have been cultured for E. tarda with negative results and faecal samples collected on two separate occasions have been cultured for E. tarda with negative results.
There is no evidence that Edwardsiella tarda is transmitted through eggs or that similar organisms are transmitted through eggs either in reptiles or in birds. It is considered that clean eggs of Crocodilia imported from Australia into New Zealand do not present a biosecurity hazard. No risk mitigation measures are recommended.
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