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Published risk analyses and submission reviews
You can download a copy of a published import risk analysis. Each risk analysis has a related document, which is a review of the submissions received.
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2015 Pest Risk Assessment: ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ associated with imported carrot seeds for sowing
‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) was identified by rapid risk assessment through the Ministry for Primary Industries (MPI) emerging risk system as an organism that may require risk management on the imported carrot seed pathway (PP 14-130). This formal risk assessment has been prepared to support risk management decisions for the pathway.
Ants on Sawn Timber Imported from the South Pacific Region - Risk Analysis (April 2003)
Importing, Overview, Forest Products, Timber, Import Health Standards
Investigates the risks of importing unwanted species of ants with commercial consignments of sawn timber exported to New Zealand from the south Pacific region (excluding Australia), the likelihood of those imported ants establishing in New Zealand, the effectiveness of the biosecurity measures and border clearance systems currently in place and mitigating those risks, and any additional biosecurity measures that may be required to reduce the biosecurity risk to an acceptable level.
Apple (Malus domestica) nursery stock micro-organisms and diseases - Final Import Risk Analysis (July 2012)
This document is an analysis of the risk posed by exotic strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (the causative agent of Newcastle disease) in imported hatching eggs of hens (Gallus gallus). Although non-pathogenic strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 are present in New Zealand, there has never been an outbreak of Newcastle disease in this country.
This analysis concludes that there is a low risk that exotic strains of avian paramyxovirus type 1 could be introduced in hen's hatching eggs. The spread of introduced strains is considered possible by a variety of exposure pathways, although the risks of airborne spread have been greatly exaggerated over the past 30 years. The introduction of highly virulent strains of the virus would almost certainly result in serious mortality in commercial and hobby poultry flocks. Furthermore, exposure of wild birds could lead to the virus being introduced into endangered native bird populations, with potentially devastating effects. While the introduction of field strains of low virulence might not cause severe disease in New Zealand bird populations, some strains may have significant effects on avian health and production, and since low virulence field strains may not be as stable as was thought in the past, there is a possibility that such strains could mutate to become virulent after introduction into chicken flocks.
Recommendations for importations of hatching eggs were made and for the review of the current avian quarantine facility standard, which includes safeguards for airborne spread.
Babesia gibsoni in dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog semen - Import risk analysis (February 2003)
This document is a qualitative analysis of the biosecurity risks posed by Babesia gibsoni in dogs (Canis familiaris) and their semen imported into New Zealand.
B. gibsoni is a tick-transmitted blood borne parasite of wild and domestic dogs. The tick Haemaphysalis longicornis, which is known to be capable of transmitting the disease, is found in New Zealand. The disease is characterised by lethargy, fever and haemolytic anaemia. Treatment is not effective in eliminating the parasite, and recovered dogs commonly become chronic carriers, thereby posing a source of infection for other dogs and ticks.
There is no evidence that semen poses a risk of introduction of B. gibsoni. Safeguards are recommended to manage the risk of introduction of B. gibsoni in imported dogs.
Black Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis richteri) - Risk Assessment
This analysis examines the risks posed by infectious or parasitic agents when importing budgerigars from the United Kingdom.
Seventy nine organisms/diseases of concern of budgerigars are considered. Of these, 19 are identified as preliminary hazards and are subject to a risk assessment. As a result of this, a non-negligible risk is identified with avian paramyxovirus 1 (low pathogenicity), avian influenza (low pathogenicity), Pachecho’s disease virus (herpesvirus), psittacine pox virus, psittacine reovirus, exotic Salmonella spp., protozoal blood parasites (haematozoa), external parasites, and internal parasites.
Options are presented for effective management of risk, including isolation in quarantine for suitable periods, testing for disease agents or for antibodies to the agents, and treatment for internal and external parasites.
Camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat for human consumption from Australia - Import risk analysis (April 2003)
This import risk analysis is concerned with effectively managing the disease risks associated with the importation of camel meat for human consumption from Australia. In this context, risk is defined as the likelihood of a disease entering, establishing or spreading in New Zealand and its likely impact on animal or human health, the environment and the economy.
The meat would be derived from central Australian feral camels slaughtered and processed in domestic licensed abattoirs.
Cats, dogs and canine semen from all countries - Final import risk analysis (November 2009)
This risk analysis examines the risks involved with the importation of domestic cats (Felis catus), dogs (Canis familiaris), and canine semen from all countries.
This document examines each of the agents of concern by applying MPI’s standard risk analysis process. This begins with the hazard identification step, where the epidemiology of the disease including distribution, clinical signs, transmission, diagnosis and any available treatment is considered. As a result, each organism is identified as a hazard or not in the commodities.
Organisms identified as hazards are subjected to individual risk assessments, which assess the likelihood of entry, exposure and the likely resulting adverse consequences. For organisms that are assessed to be risks in the commodities, the risk management step considers options that could be used to effectively manage the risk.
The risk analysis concludes that the following agents pose non-negligible risks in imported cats, dogs and canine semen, and that sanitary measures can be justified for them: canine brucellosis, leptospirosis, plague, salmonellosis, babesiosis, Q fever, filariosis, leishmaniosis, Surra, canine transmissible venereal tumour, ectoparasitic infestations (fleas, leeches, lice, mites, ticks and fly larvae infestation), endoparasites (cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans and trematodes) and rabies.
Cattle from Australia, Canada, the European Union, and the United States of America - Final import risk analysis (February 2009)
The risks associated with the importation of cattle from Australia, Canada, the European Union (27 countries), and the United States of America have been examined. Only risks associated with the importation of infectious organisms or parasites have been considered.
Of an initial list of 93 microorganisms or groups of organisms, 43 disease agents or groups of disease agents/diseases that are exotic to New Zealand or are the subject of a national eradication campaign in New Zealand, were included in a preliminary hazard list. Thirty four of these were identified to be hazards and were subjected to a risk assessment. A non-negligible risk was identified with the following: Borna disease virus, exotic bovine herpes viruses, bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, bovine ephemeral fever virus, foot and mouth disease virus, rabies virus, tick borne encephalitis viruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent, Bacillus anthracis, exotic Brucella spp., Mycobacterium bovis, exotic Mycoplasma spp., Pasteurella multocida types B and E, exotic Salmonella spp., exotic Leptospira spp., Anaplasma spp., Chlamydophila abortus, Coxiella burnetii, Babesia spp., Theileria annulata, exotic lice, mites and ticks, Hypoderma spp., exotic internal parasites, and exotic weed seeds.
Options for risk management measures in order to effectively manage the risk associated with each of these have been presented.
Cattle germplasm from all countries - Final import risk analysis (February 2009)
This risk analysis covers the import of frozen bovine semen and in vivo derived bovine embryos from all countries.
An initial list of 86 disease agents was compiled. The list did not include arthropod and nematode parasites as these cannot be carried by semen or embryos. Further consideration of these resulted in a preliminary hazard list of 37 disease agents or groups of disease agents, which were subjected to risk analysis. In some cases risk analysis was done on a group of agents rather than a single agent e.g. Simbu group viruses, Salmonella spp., mollicutes of cattle etc.
28 of these preliminary hazards were identified to be hazards and were subjected to a risk assessment. 12 hazards were assessed to be associated with a negligible risk and, in these cases, no risk management measures are required.
A non-negligible risk was identified with the following: Borna disease virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 2, Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, foot and mouth disease virus, exotic bovine herpes viruses, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, exotic Brucella spp., Mycobacterium bovis, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, other exotic Mycoplasma spp., exotic Salmonella spp., exotic Leptospira spp., Chlamydophila abortus, and Coxiella burnetii. Options for risk management measures in order to effectively manage the risk associated with each of these have been presented.
Chicken and duck meat for human consumption - Draft import risk analysis (August 2013)
The biosecurity risks associated with the importation of chilled or frozen meat and meat products derived from chickens (Gallus gallus) or ducks (Pekin ducks, Anas platyrhynchos domestica or Anas peking, muscovy ducks Cairina moschata, or a hybrid of these known as mulard or moulard ducks) have been examined.
From an initial list of 116 organisms/groups of organisms possibly associated with chickens and ducks, a preliminary hazard list identified 47 organisms/groups of organisms that required further consideration. Of these preliminary hazards, 14 were identified as hazards in imported whole chicken carcases, 6 in imports limited to chicken meat, 16 in imported whole duck carcases and 10 of these were identified as hazards in imports limited to duck meat.
Following a risk assessment for each of these hazards, options to manage the risk associated with the following hazards in chicken meat have been presented: Newcastle disease virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, infectious bursal disease virus, and Salmonella arizonae. For imported whole chicken carcases, risk management measures have also been presented for avian paramyxovirus-2 and exotic strains of infectious bronchitis virus.
Options to manage the risk associated with the following hazards in duck meat have been presented: Newcastle disease virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, duck hepatitis virus, derzsy’s disease virus (muscovy ducks and their hybrids only) and Salmonella arizonae. For imported whole duck carcases, risk management measures have also been presented for avian paramyxovirus-2 and duck virus enteritis virus.
News & Resources, Publications, Importing, Overview, Import Health Standards
A review is being carried out of the Import Health Standards 155.02.06: Importation of Nursery Stock, specific Citrus schedule, which is out of date. As inputs to this review, pest risk assessments are required for eight organisms that have been identified as pests of Citrus but do not currently have a requirement for specific tests. These pest risk assessments examine the risks posed by eight micro-organisms (viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and bacteria) associated with the importation of Citrus nursery stock from all countries. All eight species are found to be non-negligible risks associated with Citrus nursery stock.
Crazy Ants (Paratrechina longicornis) - Risk Assessment
This risk analysis considers the biosecurity risks associated with the importation of live animals and hatching eggs of species within the Order Crocodilia (Class Reptilia) from Australia. The commodity definitions used were: animals of species in the Order Crocodilia (Class Reptilia) which have been hatched and reared in captivity in Australia and which are clinically healthy and free from visible soil contamination; and eggs of Crocodilia laid in captivity in Australia. Eggs must be clean on visual inspection. From a preliminary hazard list, those organisms identified as hazards in the commodity were subjected to individual risk assessments.
As a result of the individual risk assessments, it was concluded that the risk in live Crocodilia was non-negligible for only one organism; Edwardsiella tarda. It is recommended that Crocodilia are required to have been reared in an environment with good quality water from a supply not inhabited by fish and have not been fed on fish or been exposed to live fish, or samples from both gular and paracloacal glands have been cultured for E. tarda with negative results and faecal samples collected on two separate occasions have been cultured for E. tarda with negative results.
There is no evidence that Edwardsiella tarda is transmitted through eggs or that similar organisms are transmitted through eggs either in reptiles or in birds. It is considered that clean eggs of Crocodilia imported from Australia into New Zealand do not present a biosecurity hazard. No risk mitigation measures are recommended.
Deer germplasm - Final import risk analysis (July 2011)
This risk analysis examines the risks involved with the importation of deer germplasm from any country. An extensive hazard list of organisms of potential concern that could be associated with deer germplasm has been collated and preliminary hazards are identified as those that meet specified criteria. Mycobacterium bovis is the only endemic organism retained as a preliminary hazard since it is the subject of an official control programme under the Biosecurity Act 1993. Organisms that do not cause diseases of deer and those that cannot be carried in germplasm are excluded. The latter group included all external and internal metazoan parasites and diseases which are transmitted only by arthropod vectors.
Organisms identified as hazards in the commodity are subjected to risk assessment to provide a risk estimate by considering the likelihood of entry (the disease agent being present in an animal at the time of importation), exposure (likelihood of spread and establishment if imported) and any adverse consequences likely to follow these events. For organisms that are classified as a risk, risk management options are presented including quarantine, serological testing, agent isolation or identification, treatment and restriction of germplasm donors to those originating from free herds, zones or countries.
The following are classified as risks in the commodity and risk management options have been suggested: Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2, cervine adenovirus, cervid herpesvirus 1 and bovine herpesvirus 1, foot and mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, peste des petits ruminants virus, Rift Valley fever virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, Brucella spp., Chlamydophila abortus, exotic Leptospira serovars, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycoplasma bovis, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC, Coxiella burnetii, exotic Salmonella serotypes and phage types, and chronic wasting disease.
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