The 3 Rs are guiding principles
New Zealand promotes the use of the 3 Rs in animal research, testing, and teaching.
Replace animals with non-animal alternatives. Computer models can sometimes be used for teaching instead of live animals.
Use as few animals as necessary.
Refine the way experiments are carried out to reduce pain or suffering as much as possible. For example, painkillers or the most advanced scientific methods could be used.
3 Rs must be considered when evaluating proposals
Animal ethics committees must take the 3 Rs into account when considering proposals for research, testing, or teaching. This means that animals should only be used when there are no alternatives. Any harm to animals must be minimised, and weighed against the benefit to humans or other animals.
Scientific advances have changed the use of animals in research. Recent developments let researchers reduce the number of animals used, in certain situations. Developments have helped researchers refine their methods to minimise or eliminate pain and distress.
Find out more
Replacement, reduction, and refinement (the 3 Rs) – National Animal Ethics Advisory Committee
Reporting animal use to support the 3 Rs – Arrive guidelines
Find out more about the 3Rs – Understanding Animal Research
New Zealand 3 Rs
MPI and ANZCCART (Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching) are partners in a New Zealand-specific 3 Rs programme. This aims to:
- promote understanding and application of the 3 Rs in New Zealand
- profile New Zealand's 3 Rs contributions
- network and liaise with other 3 Rs centres internationally.
Find resources for the 3 Rs – ANZCCART
Who to contact
If you have questions about animal research, testing, and teaching, email email@example.com