Food and pregnancy
When you're pregnant your levels of immunity are lower than usual, so you're more at risk of getting diseases carried by food. Find out how to protect yourself from foodborne illness – food poisoning – when pregnant.
Information on this page covers:
- Foodborne illness can affect your baby
- High-risk foods during pregnancy
- Food safety when eating out
- Travelling overseas
- Be aware of foodborne infections
Eating safely when you are pregnant will help protect you and your developing baby's health. Foodborne illness can make you and your baby unwell, and in extreme cases can cause:
- serious illness
- premature birth
- the death of newborn babies.
You can reduce the risks of foodborne illness by knowing which foods are high risk, and avoiding them.
It is also important to follow basic food safety guidelines when preparing and storing food. This helps prevent pathogens (bugs) getting in your food.
Most foods sold in New Zealand are safe, but some have a higher risk of causing illness and should be avoided while you're pregnant. Other foods need to be prepared carefully to reduce the growth of bugs.
Other foods to watch out for during pregnancy
Some foods contain chemicals that may affect you or your baby. You should avoid all alcoholic drinks. You may need to limit other types of food during pregnancy, too. For example, you might limit the amount of caffeine you consume by watching the amount of coffee, tea, and cola you drink, and how much chocolate you eat.
Risks are harder to manage at buffets, smorgasbords, salad bars, or street vendors, so avoid eating food from these places.
When you eat out or buy takeaways, avoid the same high-risk foods you would avoid at home. Don't eat:
- raw eggs or foods containing raw eggs (such as mayonnaise, hollandaise sauce, Caesar dressing, and some desserts)
- unwashed fruits and vegetables, raw sprouts, or raw herbs
- pre-prepared cold foods such as salads, unrefrigerated sandwiches, or sushi
- undercooked or raw meat, poultry, or seafood
- cold meats, pâté, or cold, smoked fish
- soft cheeses (unless cooked)
- soft-serve ice cream.
To minimise risk during pregnancy, choose restaurant and takeaway food that is:
- well cooked
- prepared just before it's served to you
- served steaming hot.
Some countries have very high rates of foodborne illness, and water supplies may not be safe.
Get advice from your doctor or a travel health clinic before you go. While you're away, take extra care to check that food and water (including ice) are safe.
Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis are infections you can get through food. These are rare but they are dangerous to pregnant women.
Listeria is a bacteria that can be found on plants, in soil, in water, and in animal faeces. It can be found on raw food, and can also contaminate prepared food.
Listeriosis is the disease causes by Listeria. It can cause miscarriage or early labour. It may also cause babies to be born with the infection and require antibiotic treatment.
Minimise your risk by:
- avoiding high-risk foods
- washing or cooking food thoroughly
- storing food at recommended temperatures
- throwing away food that has passed its use-by or best-before date
- eating packaged perishable foods, like dairy products, within 2 days of opening.
Toxoplasmosis can come from:
- eating unwashed vegetables, undercooked meat, or ready-to-eat meats such as salami or ham
- drinking raw (unpasteurised) milk
- cross-contamination of food after gardening in areas where there are cat faeces, or from direct contact with cats.
Toxoplasmosis can cause eye or brain damage in unborn babies.
Minimise your risk by washing your hands well after:
- handling raw meat and vegetables
- touching animals
- cleaning up after animals.